Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Arts Management 2020 - Session 8

Marketing and Art

Art is a form of self-expression. It provides pleasure to the human mind by showcasing the creativity, originality and diversity of human capacity to express. Art captivates and thrills.

Apart from performers, art is promoted and supported by art critics, writers, researchers, academics and teachers.

What is the market?
The market for any product includes all those who find value and could buy the product. It includes the general audience, dance schools, dance students, dance organisers, dance fans and those who appreciate dance and promote it. Individuals, schools, colleges, cultural organisations, institutions, governments etc are part of the market for dance.

How does an artist satisfy the market’s need?
As with all marketing, the artist-marketer has to understand the need of the market first. This can be done by basic market research in the form of a survey of potential customers/patrons. Direct interviews, questionnaires etc are simple tools used for market research.

Based on the understanding of the need of the market, the artist-marketer designs appropriate performances and services which satisfy and delight the audience.

As an artist- marketer you must look for an ‘unmet’ need and design your products and services. For example, religious festivals provide an opportunity (have a need) to showcase dance in various stages. Similarly, corporate events also provide an opportunity to showcase dance. Dance festivals in India and abroad provide an opportunity, or an unmet need of the Indian diaspora to reconnect with their culture which can be satisfied.

What are the steps for the artist-marketer to take to market dance as an individual/organisation?

1       Develop a vision/ mission statement to state your purpose.
Why are you in business? 
This vision/mission statement sets the tone for your business model. A vision statement takes a long-range vision of the business and states what it wants to achieve over its lifetime.
For eg: “My mission is to give consistently spectacular performances, and make dance accessible and relevant to audiences in India and abroad.”

Develop Organizational/ Personal Objectives (broad objectives)
What do you want to achieve through your dance performances/academy in the short/medium run?
Objectives are shorter-term goals which are more immediate and must be achieved to achieve the big vision.
For eg. 'To perform 10-12 performances in a year. In the first year, to perform at x, y, z and one elite stage performance. In the second year I will perform at xxx, at aim for x, y, z elite performances.... I want my dance to be recognised through awards/elite stages/ good critique etc.”
To devise a well balanced curriculum for dancers of all ages and expert levels and train about 50 performers in 3 years, 5 of whom will perform in xx levels of expertise.”

Develop a Marketing Plan to achieve Organisational/Personal objectives. (For one year)
For eg. For a performer
Use the marketing mix of 4Ps - develop product, position your products, find an appropriate place, fix a price, promote the product.
Product - SWOT analysis, Unique competitive advantage, Make a promise based on value proposition
Positioning – Position your product according to the market, find appropriate place
Price – Price your product appropriately
Promotion - Make a resume, brochure, dance video (marketing collateral), Network with number of gurus and organisations, art critics, Write blogs, be seen on Facebook, Instagram, record dance history, create strong impact on social media , List out possible places to perform, seek ways to volunteer.....etc

For an academy
Do a SWOT analysis (Compare Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of your product vs competing products)
Make a strategy to position your competitive advantage best
Make curriculum, marketing collateral, reach out to your market
  Marketing Strategies
¡  Market Segmentation –Devise specific dance programs based on age groups, cultural groups, gender, geographies and other demographics

4 Ps of Marketing Management
To understand art management better we used the 4 Ps – product, price, place, promotion, as the variables to understand how best to market art.
The 4 Ps are –Product, Price, Positioning/Place, Promotion

First, identify the need. Market research (interviews, questionnaires) helps to identify the need of the customer.

Create the product to satisfy the need
a)       Conduct a SWOT Analysis (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat)
b)       Find your Unique Competitive Advantage (gives you best chance to maximise potential)
c)        Be clear about your value proposition, your promise to the customer, your deliverable. Orient products to market needs and build products to suit the need.

Product – Dance – Knowledge of dance, Performance, Body of work, Academic strength. Your product must deliver a clear value, a promise.
Features –Style, Gurus, Your resume, Your Strengths, Your mission and vision, any interesting aspects of your presentation
Benefits to market – Consumers (give a superior product when compared to the competition), Facilitators (present with a package that makes it easier for facilitators to sell)
Aim – Make product stronger, strong on basics, use deliberate practice, 10000 hours, 20 hours to learn, learning mindset, mentors, gurus, feedback management
The best position would be one where 1) you are the best in that area 2) it makes best economic sense and 3) you are passionate about that area.
Eg. Prepare ballets, performances in accordance with requirement of organisers, stages such as festivals, events, fusion and other experimental work, dance appreciation classes etc.Make a list of such products can be made and prepared for to meet the needs of various audiences for dance.
- Knowing the market, exploring alternative markets, visioning the product in the future etc.

The purpose of a positioning strategy is to gain a competitive advantage over competitors by using the strengths and weaknesses of the product, needs of the customers and the position of the competitors.
Positioning Strategies
A) Comparative (Position with the majority)
B) Differentiation (Try to break away and differentiate from the majority)
C) Segmentation (Segment the market and pick a niche that works for you best)

Place is about the point of distribution. For example, a high-end school would be located in a high-end area while a low-end school would be located in a low-end area. By choosing the place consciously, the marketer has already decided the numbers, the price and other elements of the mix.
It is where you make your product accessible to the market. Choose your place well keeping in mind the needs and requirements of your market. The selection of your place will normally be in line with your mission / vision. Place (distribution)
·         Physical Distribution – Direct performances, YouTube channels
·         Indirect distribution – Through organisers, facilitators, YouTube and other forms of staying relevant and reaching out to bigger markets


Channels to promote yourselves
         Develop marketing collateral such as brochures, resumes, videos etc. Identify all the places where they should be sent to get maximum exposure. Journals, contacts, networking, magazines etc.
         Performances – Number of performances to be done in the next 12 -24 months, where and when, to be planned for the coming year(s)
         Journals and newspapers – Knowing and contacting the people behind the journals, getting their feedback and sense of how these things work, getting work critiqued by experts
         Magazines – Knowing and contacting people (write to magazines and express your views)
         Websites – Where one can be listed, of other professionals so one can develop similar websites (list yourselves on websites that you can register yourself on)
         Start Blogs, websites, social media presence on Facebook, Instagram, Linkedin – To start writing blogs on dance, to express thoughts and ideas (start blogging)
         Networking – Top names in the field to be met or known (make list and meet)
         Join Groups – Dance groups for sharing of info and support (form groups, one within and one external and set agenda)
         Join or create Forums – For sharing of info and support (to join at least 2 forums)

Price is a reflection of the value that the market perceives from the product. It also reflects on the way you have positioned your product -  if it is premium product with premium packaging, you can price it in the premium category. If the product is positioned to reach out to other segments – it must be priced keeping in view the paying capacity of the market. A study of various competing products will give you a fair idea of how to price your product.

The price we charge also reflects our value of our work, our self-worth and expertise.

Pricing Strategies
         Cost-Plus pricing (Your cost plus a percentage)

         Competitive Pricing (Charge as Competitors are Charging)

         Value-based pricing (Charge as per perceived value)

         Price Skimming (Charge high initially and then reduce)

         Penetration Pricing (Charge low to gain entry and then increase the price)

If you were asked to start an institution/academy, how would you present the marketing plan to the sponsors using the 4Ps?

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